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Extra compact and extra sensitive X-Ray spectrometer which provides  absolute spectral measurement of low intensity X-ray radiation sources,  X-ray fluorescence analysis, EXAFS, etc.

- Broad spectral range

- High spectral resolution

- Absolute calibration


X-Ray spectrometer HD-1

An X-ray focusing crystal von Hamos spectrometer HD-1 was developed using graphite cylindrical crystals (radius of curvature R=20 mm) with a CCD linear array detector. CCD X-ray detectors have the advantages of high sensitivity, good signal-to-noise ratio, wide dynamic range and high spatial resolution.

HD-1 was specially developed for for such applications, as absolute spectral measurements of low intensity X-ray radiation sources,  X-ray fluorescence analysis, EXAFS, etc.

1. X-ray source;

2. Characteristic x-ray emission;

3. Multilayer cylindrical diffraction grating;

4. X-ray emission decomposed into spectral lines;

5. CCD line array (rotated 90 degree along cylinder axis as a visualization aid);

6. X-ray emission spectrum;

7. Axis of a cylindrical multilayer diffraction grating;


Implemented von Hamos scheme allows to use a CCD linear array as the X-ray detector, which provides high signal efficiency in a wide spectral range.





- Broad spectral range: 0.04-1.6nm

- High spectral resolution λ/Δλ=100

- Absolute efficiency calibration

- Very high detection efficiency

- Extra compact

- Installation inside vacuum chamber in a standard optical mount

- Large aperture ratio (102-103 higher in comparison to grazing incidence spectrometers)

Focusing geometry and mosaic focusing:

- No moving crystals

- No need for crystal exchange

- High spatial resolution

- Spectra can be recorded using compact and widely used detectors

Multilayer focusing optic allows capturing characteristic X-ray spectra of the next element:


HD-1 spectrometer was used for next scientific publications:

1. A.P. Shevelko, D.E. Bliss, E.D. Kazakov, M.G. Mazarakis, J.S. McGarn, L.V. Knight, K.W. Struve, I.Yu. Tolstikhina, T.J. Weeks. “EUV spectroscopy of plasmas created in the final anode-cathode gap of the Z-Machine high-current pulsed generator (SNL).” Plasma Physics Report 34 (11), 944-954 (2008).

2. M.S. Bibishkin, E.D. Kazakov, V.I. Luchin, N.N. Salashchenko, V.V. Chernov, N.I. Chkhalo, A.P. Shevelko. “New focusing multilayer strustures for x-ray plasma spectroscopy.” Quantum Electronics 38, 169 (2008).

3. A.Ya. Lopatin, V.I. Luchin, N.N. Salashchenko, N.I. Chkhalo, A.P. Shevelko, O.F. Yakushev. “New focusing multilayer structures for x-ray and VUV plasma spectroscopy.” Technical Physics 55 (7), 1018-1023 (2010).

4. Yu.E. Borozdin, E.D. Kazakov, V.I. Luchin, N.N. Salashchenko, I.Yu. Tolstikhina, V.V. Chernov, N.I. Chkhalo, A.P. Shevelko, O.F. Yakushev. “X-ray and Vacuum-Ultraviolet Plasma Spectroscopy with the Use of New Focusing Multilayer Structures.” JETP Lett. 87, 27-29 (2008).

5. M.B. Agranat, N.E. Andreev, S.I. Ashitkov, A.V. Ovchinnikov, D.S. Sitnikov, V.E. Fortov, A.P. Shevelko. “Generation of characteristic X rays by a terawatt femtosecond chromium-forsterite laser.” JETP Lett. 83 (2), 80-83 (2006).

6. Weeks, M. Harrison, M. Johnson, A. P. Shevelko, J. Ellsworth, S. Bergeson, M. Asplund, L. V. Knight. “Absolute soft x-ray calibration of laser produced plasmas using a focusing crystal von Hamos spectrometer.” SPIE 5918, OR 1-10 (2005).

7. M.B. Agranat, N.E. Andreev, S.I. Ashitkov, E. Boyle, V.E. Fortov, L.V. Knight, A.V.Ovchinnikov, A.P. Shevelko, D.S. “Generation of hard x-rays by a forsterite terawatt laser.” SPIE 5918, 0O 1-10 (2005).

8. А.P. Shevelko, L.V. Knight, J. Phillips, R.S. Turley, C. Turner, O.F. Yakushev. “X-ray and EUV spectral instruments for plasma source characterization.” SPIE5196, 282-288 (2003).

9. P. Shevelko, Yu.S. Kasyanov, O.F. Yakushev, L.V. Knight. “Compact focusing von Hamos spectrometer for quantitative x-ray spectroscopy.” Rev. Sci, Instrum.73 (10), 3458-3463 (2002).

10. Shevelko, A. Antonov, I. Grigorieva, Yu. Kasyanov, O.Yakushev, L. Knight, Q. Wang. “X-ray focusing crystal von Hamos spectrometer with a CCD linear array as a detector.” Adv. X–ray analysis 45, 433-440 (2001).

11. P. Shevelko, L.V. Knight, Q. Wang, O.F. Yakushev. “Absolute x-ray calibration of laser-produced plasmas using a CCD linear array and a focusing crystal spectrometer.” SPIE 4504, 215-226 (2001).

12. C. Turner, L.V. Knight, A. Reyes-Mena, P.W. Moody, H.K. Pew, J.D. Phillips, A.P. Shevelko, S. Voronov, O.F. Yakushev. “Focusing crystal von Hamos spectrometers for XRF applications.” Adv. X-ray analysis 44, 329-335 (2000).

13. P. Shevelko, A.A. Antonov, I.G. Grigorieva, Yu.S. Kasyanov, L.V. Knight, A. Reyes-Mena, C. Turner, Q. Wang, O.F. Yakushev. “A Focusing Crystal von Hamos Spectrometer for X-ray Spectroscopy and X-ray Fluorescence Applications.” SPIE 4144, 148-154 (2000).